a| Pyrometallurgical: treatments at high temperatures that allow the recovery of the metals contained in the batteries for their gasification and subsequent purification and sedimentation.
Waelz ovens treatment of “black mass”, non-ferrous fraction of the saline / alkaline batteries:
Waelz furnaces are installations in which zinc dust residues and other residues coming from this industry are treated. Due to the high zinc content of the saline/alkaline batteries it is possible to recycle them in this installation obtaining different products with a high zinc and manganese content.
Lead smelting: lead plates are subjected to a melting and purification process after which lead ingots are obtained, suitable to be used again as raw material, in most cases for the manufacture of new batteries.
b| Hydrometallurgical: physical chemical treatments that recover metals through dissolution processes with additives and subsequent concentration or purification.
The black mass (non ferrous fraction of the saline/alkaline piles) can also be treated with this technology, obtaining high purity fractions of zinc and manganese.
As a result of this second phase, depending on the technology being treated, the chemical components that form the batteries in different chemical states (Zinc, Manganese, lithium, cobalt, lead, nickel, cadmium…) will be obtained. Some of them are used again in the production of new batteries and others are destined for iron and steel or other processes.